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Did you know that the first coffee year data as we now see in bars? And why they were invented? And why coffee prepared with these machines makes a cream that we do not get at home with an Italian coffee lifetime?
All these questions and many more are resolved in the magnificent article published by the online publication of the US Smithsonian Instituo (if you see the “Bones” series, for sure you the name sounds 😉)
Article delve into people and inventions that hiceron possible to reach the current espresso machine, we can see in bars and cafes around the world.
How the original article is in English, I have allowed the audacity to translate it into Spanish for the enjoyment of us all.
Original article (English)
The Long History of the Espresso Machine
Design Decoded, Smithsonian.com
Each issue we address in Design Decoded is explored through a series of interrelated chapters, we hope, provide a new point of view to see the things around us in everyday life. This is the second installment in a series on the centuries-old concoction, which can cause jump out of bed or fuel a revolution. , A cafeteria, drip, mud, juice the idea, whatever it ‘s called, coffee with any other name Java, Joe still has such a bitter taste. Or not? In our continued effort to unlock the forms design factors in the world around us, Design Decoded is studying all the keys of coffee. Read Part 1 in the reinvention of the cafeteria .
For many coffee drinkers, coffee espresso stands. It is the purest distillation of the coffee bean, the literal essence of a grain. In another sense, it is also the first instant coffee. Before the concept espresso, brew a cup of coffee could take up to five minutes and five minutes. But what is espresso and how it came to dominate our morning routines?
Although many people are familiar with coffee these days thanks to the Starbucksification the world, there is often some confusion about what it really is – largely because of the “roasted coffees” available in supermarkets around the world. First, and most importantly, the espresso is not a method of roasting coffee. It is neither a grain nor a mixture. It is a method of preparation. More specifically, it is a preparation method in which a jet of hot and highly pressurized water passes ground coffee to produce a concentrated coffee beverage with a deep taste, sturdy. While there is no standardized process for preparing an espresso, the definition of the Italian company Illy looks as good as any other to explain:
A stream of hot water at 88 ° -93 ° C (190 ° -200 ° F) passes under a pressure of nine or more atmospheres through seven grams (0.25 ounces) cake-like ground layer and tamped coffee. If done correctly, the result is a concentration of no more than 30 ml (one ounce) of pure sensory pleasure.
For those of you who, like me, a few years not tread a science class, for nine atmospheres of pressure it is equivalent to nine times the normal amount of pressure exerted by Earth’s atmosphere. How can you deduce from the accuracy of the description of Illy, a good espresso is good chemical formula. It is accuracy and consistency, and find the perfect balance between grinding, temperature and pressure.Espresso happens at the molecular level. This is why the technology has been such an important part of the historical development of espresso and a key to the ongoing search for the perfect espresso. While espresso was never designed by itself, machines for preparing cappuccinos and lattes our have a history that goes back more than a century.
In the 19th century, coffee was big business in Europe, with cafés flourish across the continent. However, the preparation of coffee was a slow process and, as still happens today, customers often had to wait for his drink. Seeing an opportunity, the inventors across Europe began exploring ways to use the steam to reduce the processing time coffee – this was, after all, the era of steam.
But surely there were countless patents and prototypes, the invention of the machine and the method that gave way to the espresso is usually attributed to Angelo Moriondo of Turin, Italy, which obtained a patent in 1884 for the “new steam engine for economic manufacture and instant drink coffee. “it consisted of a machine of a boiler, which is heated up to 1.5 bar pressure, carrying water through a large bed of coffee beans on demand, with a second boiler steam empababa coffee bed and so completed the mix.Although the invention of Moriondo was the first coffee machine in use water and steam, it was something created exclusively for the General Exhibition of Turin. It is not known much more about Moriondo, due largely to what we would consider today as a failure of marketing. There was never any machines “Moriondo” no verifiable machines in existence, and there is not even photographs of his work.With the exception of his patent, Moriondo has been lost in history. The two men that would improve the design to produce espresso coffee Morinodo not make the same mistake.
Desiderio Pavoni and Luigi Bezzerra was the Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs of espresso. The artisan of Milan and “distilled spirits producer” Luigi Bezzera was the way to do it. He had invented the espresso machines under 100 dollars in the early twentieth century while searching for a method to quickly prepare coffee in the cup.
He made numerous improvements to the machine Moriondo, introducing the filter holder, several heads to pour coffee, and many other innovations associated even today espresso machines today. In the original patent Bezzera, a large boiler and heating chambers was filled and heated until water and steam expelled through a disc tamping coffee. The mechanism by which hot water would also exerted radiator, lowering the water temperature of the boiler to an ideal to consume about 90 ° C. temperature and voila, espresso. For the first time, a cup of coffee pedia and served in seconds. But the invention of Bezzera was heated under an open flame, making it difficult to control the pressure and temperature, and virtually impossible to control a constant flow of hot water. Perseverance and consistency is the key in the world of espresso. Bezzera designed and built a few prototypes of this machine, but the resulting coffee was not very valued because he had no money to expand the business or marketing any idea to sell the machine. But if you meet someone who would. Here enters the story Desiderio Pavoni.
Pavoni bought the patent Bezerra in 1903 and improved some aspects of design. He had invented the first safety valve. This meant that the hot coffee was not scorch the barista at the time of making coffee, facilitating this process and earning the gratitude of baristas worldwide.
Pavoni also created the steam pipe, to directly access the steam generated in the boiler.
Bezzera and Pavoni jntos worked to perfect his machine, which Pavoni dubbed the “Ideale”. In the Milan Fair 1906, the two men showed the world the “espresso”.
Bezzera, although even could have built first Pavoni machines, was slowly disappearing from the scene (the end of the day he had bought the patent), while Pavoni continued worldwide selling their brand of machines “espresso” ( “Made in the heat of the moment “), which are commercially produced in his studio in Milan.
With its numerous innovations, Ideale marked an important step in the development of the first modern espresso. After the Milan Fair, like espresso coffee machines they began to appear throughout Italy, and the simple machine Bezerra evolved into an elaborate machine golden flourishes and ornaments taken as an aircraft from a novel by Jules Verne.
These first machines could eventually produce 1,000 cups of coffee per hour, but depended exclusively steam, which had the unfortunate side effect of transferring the coffee a burnt taste bitter, and could only get to generate two bar pressure very 9 bars currently considered a standard for the development of an espresso correctly still far from.
A strong competitor was Pier Teresio Arduino Pavoni. Arduino was an inventor with the determination to find a method of preparing an espresso that did not depend exclusively steam. Even having conceived the incorporation of air pistons and valves in their machines, it was not able to realize their ideas.However, his major contributions to the history of espresso were otherwise. Arduino was businessman and a marketer far more than Pavoni. He elaborated a marketing strategy around the espresso, which directly included the graphic designer Leonetto Cappiello to create the famous poster that captured the essence of espresso and speed of the modern era. In the 20s, Arduino had a greater than Pavoni in Milan workshop and, as a result of their production capabilities and marketing expertise, was better prepared to export machines outside Milan and espresso expand to the rest of Europe.
The person who finally managed to pass the barrier of the 2 bar pressure was the owner of a cafe called Achille Gaggia Milan. Gaggia machines transformed the baroque inspired by Jules Verne, in a chrome lever machines taken from a spacecraft. In the Gaggia machine, invented after the Second World War, the pressurized steam pushing water inside a cylinder was pressurized harder piston by a lever operated by the barista. This not only made disappear the need for large boilers, but also drastically increased pressure from about 2 bar to 8-10 bar. Lever machines also standardized the size of espresso. The cylinder lever groups could only contain one ounce of water, limiting the volume that could be used to make coffee.
With lever machines also introduced a new lingo: baristas that powered machines Gaggia coined the term “serve a shot” (in English pulling a shot) of espresso. A historical anecdote says that the first consumers were reluctant to take the “junk” that floated over coffee until Gaggia began referring to it as “creamers”, suggesting that the coffee was of such quality that produced its own cream. With high pressure and golden cream, Gaggia lever machine marks the birth of contemporary espresso.
But this is not nearly the end of the evolution of the machine. The next revolution in the espresso machine happened in the revolucionariosn 60s, when the piston Gaggia machine was surpassed by the Faema E61 invented by Ernesto Valente in 1961, the E61 introduced many innovations and world firsts espresso. Instead of using manual force barista, he used a motorized pump provided 9 bar pressure needed to serve an espresso. Pump water directly transferred through a pipe in a spiral inside the boiler before firing through the coffee. A heat exchanger always kept the water at the ideal temperature to serve coffee. With these technical innovations, small size, versatility and shiny stainless steel design, the E61 was an immediate success fairly and included in the pantheon of the most influential coffee machines in history.
Surely there are more steps along the way, but these developments mark the commercial history of espresso. For more than a century, the espresso machine has been dramatically improved, with electronics, computerized meters, and portable pneumatic systems. But as with the most important objects of design, science and technology are not enough. There is a part of art in the espresso. Barista talent is as important as the quality of grains and efficiency of the machine. “Macinaziones” the right ground grain, which ideally should be done just before serving the drink; “Miscela” blend coffee and toast, and “Hand”, the skill of the barista, because even with the best grain and the most advanced equipment, coffee depends on the touch and style barista.
When combined properly, these four “Emes” produce a drink that is both elegant bez round, with a light and sweet cream lingering over coffee.
A complex drink with a complex history.